One did not actually have to sign a contract to be a member of Satan's army; anyone—heretic, sorcerer, Jew, Muslim—who knowingly opposed the Christian community—that is, the body of Christ—was deemed to have made an implicit pact with the devil and to number among his servants.
Types of witchcraft
In East Africa, at least 50 albinos people with a rare genetic disorder that leaves the skin, hair and eyes without pigment were murdered for their body parts in , according to the Red Cross. Salem was a small, premodern village in which everyone knew everyone else, a situation that encouraged people to correlate unfortunate events with unpopular individuals and to blame them for their misfortunes. The pentagram is the most common symbol of religious identity. Main article: Wicca During the 20th century, interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase, inspired particularly by Margaret Murray 's theory of a pan-European witch-cult originally published in , since discredited by further careful historical research. Under such influence, the Christians came to divide the Greek daimones into two groups, the good angels and the evil demons. Empirical science ignores such events because they cannot be verified through experimentation, but societies whose worldviews are not exclusively empirical regard them as direct and convincing evidence of a coherent, magical universe. Related Content.
In certain societies throughout Western history, witches have been blamed for calamities such as natural disasters and diseases, and it was believed by some that eradicating those hardships could be accomplished by killing the practitioners of witchcraft. In both cases, the witch is imagined as an antisocial force embodying the essence of evil.
Some accept the view espoused by the occultist Dion Fortune that "all gods are one god, and all goddesses are one goddess" — that is that the gods and goddesses of all cultures are, respectively, aspects of one supernal God and Goddess. European society found other rationales by which to demonize aristocrats, Jews, communists, capitalists, imperialists, or whomever was selected as an object of hatred. Thus the idea of heresy, more than any actual heresy itself, became the basis for the connection of heresy with witchcraft. The pentagram is the most common symbol of religious identity. One did not actually have to sign a contract to be a member of Satan's army; anyone—heretic, sorcerer, Jew, Muslim—who knowingly opposed the Christian community—that is, the body of Christ—was deemed to have made an implicit pact with the devil and to number among his servants. In order to identify whether witchcraft was responsible for their problems, they would consult oracles. Sorcerers sought to compel spirits to carry out their will, but angels under God's command could not be compelled; thus it was supposed that sorcerers might well be drawing upon the aid of evil demons. The absence of the witch craze in the Eastern church illustrates the hypothesis that for a craze to break out, three elements are required: 1 the appropriate intellectual structure; 2 the mediation of that structure from the elite to the people at large; and 3 marked social tension and fear. For purposes of this conversation, keep in mind that Wicca, Paganism and witchcraft are three different words with three different meanings. Many people find a way to combine their practice with their beliefs, and still describe them as separate components. Though a few groups claiming to practice Satanism, such as the American Church of Satan and the Temple of Set , do exist, their practices are more like ironic rejection of bourgeois conventions than true devil worship. Such experiences figure prominently in folklore about witches and witchcraft.
Many towns and villages had political controversies without becoming centers of the witch craze; clearly such controversies do not automatically produce witch accusations and cannot be considered their cause.
Thus, Scholastic logic dismissed simple sorcery as demonic witchcraft.
Wiccan beliefs and practices
On a societal level, a village may blame a bad harvest or a plague on the presence of witches in the community. Those who believe in witchcraft rated their lives significantly less satisfying than those who did not. The original concept of witchcraft corresponds to what anthropologists call sorcery : the attempt to influence the course of events by ritual means. Skeptics such as Johann Weyer fl. Elements of simple sorcery were incorporated into Christian practice, as seen in the combination of Christian prayer and pagan spells commonly said by parish priests in England during the tenth and eleventh centuries. The first, rooted in classical nineteenth-century liberalism, perceived witchcraft as an invention of superstitious and greedy ecclesiastics eager to prosecute witches in order to augment their own power and wealth. The craze was restricted almost exclusively to western Europe and its colonies. Some of the suspected witches and wizards were hacked to death with machetes, or had their throats slit before their bodies were burned.
The Azande often blamed any kind of misfortune, from cracked pots to serious illness and death, on witchcraft. Main article: Wiccan views of divinity Theological views within Wicca are diverse.
The invention of the printing press also did its part in spreading the evil. When a granary collapsed, killing a man inside it, the Azande were perfectly capable of understanding that it had given way because it was in a state of disrepair and weakened by termites.
The demons were supposed to be angels who, under Satan's leadership, had turned against God and thereby become evil spirits. Romanticism located authenticity in the folklore of European peasants, which was presumed to contain elements of ancient pagan religions. In the sixteenth century many more women were living alone than men. This was the central idea of the second main variety of witchcraft, the alleged diabolism of the late medieval and Renaissance periods in Europe. He wrote that "the largest existing body of witches who are true Satanists would be the Yezedees ". Thus the idea of heresy, more than any actual heresy itself, became the basis for the connection of heresy with witchcraft. Anthropological Concepts of Sorcery and Witchcraft Anthropologists distinguish between sorcery and witchcraft. These manuals told inquisitors what signs of Satanism to look for, what questions to ask, and what answers to expect. Witchcraft may be practiced as an isolated spiritual activity independent of a traditional religion, yet it may also be one aspect within a traditional religion as well. Cultures with a belief in witchcraft often imagine witches as the very opposite of everything considered right in society. Since it was believed that the devil's followers submitted to him sexually, it was naturally supposed that they should be women, some of whom described their intercourse with the devil in lurid detail. Between and a series of decrees established the papal Inquisition. The word "witch" comes from the Old English term "bewitch," which is commonly understood as the act of casting a spell on another person to gain control over them this could be for a variety of reasons. Rather, Lucifer in this context is seen as one of many morning stars, a symbol of enlightenment,  independence and human progression. Sorcery is a system of beliefs and practices whose goal is to manipulate nature in order to bring about specific changes that benefit the sorcerer or her or his clients.
Two other, quite different, phenomena have also been called witchcraft. If no natural magic existed, it followed that wonders were worked either through divine miracle or demonic imposture.
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