Political and economical differences between russia and china during mongol rule
Ostrowski, Donald. In Addition he only allowed Mongols to be a part of the government. Wittfogel, Karl A.
Mongols in russia today
Upshur, et al. Kublai Khan organized a fixed, regular tax system. As a result, serfdom emerged in Russia just as it was disappearing in western Europe. He enjoyed the company of scholars and intellectuals, men of wit. For one thing, in part to demonstrate that he really did rule the world, he launched two very costly and unsuccessful attacks on Japan. They continued to dress in their own clothing. Because of this trade flourished in this time period. Thus, Russia lost the urban merchant oligarchies, the "rising middle classes" that appeared in Western Europe about this time. Kublai Khan wanted to support agriculture and he created an Office for Stimulation of Agriculture. One such visitor, Sigismund von Herberstein from Hapsburg made note of the fact that every two or three years, the prince conducted a census throughout the land Wittfogel, On the other hand, although he used some Chinese in low positions in the government, he abolished the civil service exams, preferred to use Chinese in his bureaucracy and established separate rules for the Mongols and for the Chinese. In addition to their meaning for Moscow and the Orthodox church, Mongol contacts led to changes in Russian military organization and tactics and the political style of Russian rulers. This practice was carried on by Moscow after it stopped acknowledging the Horde in
The Mongols used the Grand Canal to transport grain to the capital. Mongol forces raided as late as the s, and the princes of Muscovy did not formally renounce their vassal status until The Hague: Mouton, Beyond this, the Russian cities, once they dug out of their ruins, order their affairs pretty much as they wished.
The Mongol incursions destroyed the last remnant of Kievan power, and henceforth medieval Russia was essentially divided into four regions.
Political and economic effects of mongol rule on china and russia
In alliance with other Russian vassals, they raised an army that defeated the forces of the Golden Horde at the battle of Kulikovo. The khans found indirect rule lucrative and effective. Novgorod enjoyed the advantage of a strategic commercial site on the Volkhov River, but most of its territory was thinly populated because of its poor soil. Because of this trade flourished in this time period. After the successful campaigns to the north and west from to , they received the submission of all Russian princes, who were required to go to Sarai to tender personal homage and to offer tribute in gold, silver, fur, cattle, and young men and women as slaves. Both overland and maritime trade flourished. The position of Grand Prince was not hereditary, however, and since the khan could invest any Russian prince with the position, he was thus able to sow dissension among the Russian princes, and promote loyalty and subservience to himself. By far the greatest effects of Mongol rule, however, were those resulting from Russia's relative isolation from Christian lands farther west. Marco Polo was very impressed with trade on the Yangtze. Economic problems made Kublai Khan less tolerant.
In this way Moscow became second only to Sarai in importance during the Mongol period. Ideologically and culturally the Mongols resisted assimilation and legally tried to stay isolated from the Chinese.
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