An introduction to the problem of the struggle for equality in schools
When the non-ideal stakes are this high, equality of educational opportunity matters all the more Jacobs A key part of this debate is the extent to which education requires the cultivation of autonomy, and if does, the nature of the autonomy that is required.
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Res Abstract This contribution assesses the performance of national education systems along two important dimensions: The degree to which they help individuals develop capabilities necessary for their successful social integration educational quality and the degree to which they confer equal opportunities for social advancement educational equality.
Heckman, James J. Wilson and Pickett,p. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Januarypp.
As noted above, we may value educational opportunity in some instances for the intrinsic value of acquiring knowledge, while in other cases we may care more about its instrumental effects on individual welfare e.
For example, if we take admission at a highly selective college as our goal, and the citizens of some country as our agents, we might think that meeting a certain academic requirement, such as passing an entrance exam, is a relevant obstacle that should be permitted to stand in the way of the goal.
Equality in education pdf
WHO Equity. Discussion Educational experience can reflect and compound the effects of wider socio-economic disadvantage, but the extent to which this occurs in a particular locality and for different groups will be influenced by the mediating role played by the state and other bodies responsible for education provision, not only through legal, financial and organisational policies, but also by local history and social relations within that locality. The subsequent section surveys debates about how to negotiate the challenges faced by those looking to realize the ideal of equality of educational opportunity, including whether equality of educational opportunity can be reconciled with respecting the private sphere of the family. FEO and meritocratic equality of opportunity are consistent with providing very low or even no educational opportunities to some cognitively disabled persons, but that hardly seems like an acceptable outcome. For Westen, an opportunity is a relationship between an agent or a set of agents, and a desired goal, mediated by certain obstacles, none of which are insurmountable. Education Commission of the States, June, , pp. Efforts to combat de facto segregation have been limited by US jurisprudence since the Brown decision. Reardon, Sean F. How can an undoubtedly controversial account of what makes a human life valuable e. Bibliography Alexander, Larry A. This might be the institution in which you practise or an institution you attended, or one which a member of your family attends. The authors question whether the current strategy of the Indian government will be able to deliver equal educational opportunities for girls. One possible way in which these practices might be reconciled with formal equality of educational opportunity would be to argue that this principle applies only to public educational institutions and not private schools and colleges. Peter Westen provides a helpful definition of an opportunity that can be applied to the education sphere.
In its Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Galston has notably argued that students need a civic education that is more rhetorical than rational, while a number of liberal theorists have criticized his view on grounds of democratic legitimacy, its status-quo bias, and the related possibility of ossifying existing inequalities e.
This is because such students from poorer backgrounds should fare as well as their wealthier peers with the same potentials.
Is there anything you would like to add to these views?
Importance of equity in education
Roemer uses the example of smoking to illustrate this. Can a conception of equality of educational opportunity accommodate those with cognitive and physical disabilities? Those who advocate for affirmative action in admissions argue that we have reason to depart from a color-blind standard. Loury, Glenn C. Some claim that since some groups in pluralistic democracies reject the idea of an autonomous life, education for autonomy cannot be imposed upon them even for civic purposes, and so education should not entail the cultivation of individual autonomy Galston The reasons for this are similar to our reasons for being concerned with educational opportunity in the first place. Is affirmative action required by or contrary to equality of educational opportunity? We began by describing the reasons for being concerned about equality in this arena and then surveyed debates about the value and distribution of such opportunities. Do we have any reason to favor a college admissions policy that moves us from A to B?
The view makes sense of many of our intuitions. Which approach did your ideas most closely match or did you combine elements of both?
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